Armenian Population in Eastern Anatolia

Between Years 1878-1915

 

Prof. Dr. Ata ATUN

Near East University

Lefkoşa, T. R. North Cyprus

E-mail: ata.atun@atun.com    Tel: +90 533 881 1111

 

 

Abstract:

 

Most of the Armenian allegations on the Armenian relocation in the year 1915 based on the Armenian Patriarch's reports and the book titled “Ambassador Morgenthau’s Story” written by Mr. Henry Morgenthau Sr..

Mr. Morgenthau was the U.S. Ambassador in Istanbul from 1913 to 1916, his book on which the Armenian allegations mainly based on, when cross checked day by day with his diary, reveals the fact that it is tailored rather than conveying the real truth on what happened during this era.

The population and events recorded by various officials, organizations, Armenian Church ecclesiastics and local governments before Armenian relocation on 1915 and after the World War I, reveals the fact that the loss of lives during relocation is far below than the alleged fictitious number.

This paper, going through various non Ottoman documents, tries to reach to actual population before and after the relocation with the intention to figure out the number of loss of lives during this incident.             

 

Key words: Armenian relocation, 1915, Armenian population, Hearings in USA House of Representative, Deportation, 

 

Introduction

 

The Armenian population in eastern Anatolia just before the relocation, according to non Ottoman records, contradicts with the Armenian allegation of 2.5 million, which forms the basis of lives lost during the deportation in 1915.

 

The Armenian allegations based on mainly to the declarations of Patriarch Nerses Varjabedian on 1878, Patriarch Hovannes Arsaruni’s estimation through Mr. Kirkor Zohrab on 1912 and to book “Ambassador Morgenthau’s Story” written by Ambassador Henry Morgenthau on 1918 where a serious research revelaed later that the ghostwriter Morgenthau was Burton J. Hendrick.

 

Patriarch Nerses Varjabedian had forwarded statistics bearing large figures, as over 2.5 million on 1878 to Berlin Conference as the Armenian population living in eastern Anatolia.

 

The Armenian Patriarch Hovannes Arsaruni[1] (1912-13) estimated the Armenian population as over 2.1 million on 1912.  

 

Both figures are not based on the birth or baptize or death records of the Patriarchate or to any kind of official register but purposely puffed up to demand autonomy from the Sublime Port of Ottoman Empire.

 

Patriarch N. Varjabedian’s declaration of Armenian Population on 1880

 

The Patriarchate sent an informative statistical letters to the embassies of the than Great Power States on the year 1878 and 1880, giving details of the Armenian population in the Ottoman Empire, mainly in the Anatolia region[2].

His figures, as seen in below chart, almost had a difference of 586,315 people within 2 years.

 

The year 1878 figures were submitted to Berlin Congress on 1878 by the Patriarch.

The year 1880-a figures were submitted to the British Ambassador on 24 June 1880[3] by the Patriachate. On July 1880, Odian Effendi of Patriarchate submitted a further list to Sir Charles Dilke (F.O[4]. 424/106/200[5]) of the British Foreign Office in London. Later on Patriarch sent another one with amended figures on September 10, 1880[6].

The year 1880-b figures are the Patriarch’s corrected list (F.O. 424/106/273), with the Sivas correction (F.O. 424/107/135).

 

                        Year 1878       Year 1880-a       Year 1880-b

Erzurum               -                    215,177             111,000     

Van                  1,150,000          184,000            

Bitlis                    -                    164,500             252,500

Diyarbekir           -                         -                      88,000

Elaziz                   -                         -                    155,000

Sivas                    -                         -                    199,245

TOTAL             1,150,000          563,677             805,745

 

 

 

 

Patriarch N. Varjabedian’s declaration of Armenian Population on 1881[7]

 

The Armenian population in six provinces (including Catholics and Protestants), according to the Patriarchate, were:

 

                         Year 1881     

Erzurum            128,478          

Van                    133,859          

Bitlis                  130,460          

Diyarbekir              -                     

Elaziz                 107,059          

Sivas                  243,515

TOTAL                743,371       

 

Patriarch N. Varjabedian’s declaration of Armenian Population on 1882[8].

 

                        Year 1882      

Erzurum            280,000          

Van                    400,000          

Bitlis                  250,000          

Diyarbekir               -                    

Elaziz                 270,000          

Sivas                  280,000

TOTAL             1,630,371

 

Marcel Leart[9]’s findings on Armenian population on the year 1882, alleging that it was taken from the Patriarchate's list.

 

                         Year 1882[10]   

Van                    400,000

Bitlis                  250,000

Diyarbekir         150,000

Erzurum            280,000       

Elaziz                 270,000       

Sivas                  280,000       

Total of 6 provinces 1,630,000

 

Adana                280,000

Aleppo               100,000        (Antep, Urfa, Kilis, Marash)

Total of 2 provinces                   380,000

 

Trabzon             120,000

Bursa                   60,000       

Aydın                   50,000       

Ankara               120,000        (Ankara, Kastamonu, Konya)

Grand Syria         40,000        (Syria, Beirut, Musul, Baghdad, Basrah)

Izmir province     65,000              

Total of 6 provinces                   455,000

 

Istanbul             135,000        (Istanbul and surroundings)

Edirne                  50,000

European Turkey 10,000        (Ottoman territories in Eastern Europe)

Total of 2 provinces and Balkans 195,000   

 

Grand Total for Ottoman Empire: 2,660,000

 

When both lists put together side by side as below, it can be clearly seen that while Patriarch’s first list revealing a population of Armenians living in the area totaling 743,371 for the year 1881, the second list for the year 1882 of both Patriarch’s and Marcel Leart’s, which primarily was based on the Patriach’s list[11], reveals an incredible number of 1,630,000, alleging that within a year the Armenian population living in the above mentioned  6 provinces, namely Erzurum, Van, Bitlis, Diyarbekir, Elaziz and Sivas did increase a mere 886,629 Armenians.

 

                         Year 1881      Year 1882 (Patriarch and Leart)

Erzurum            128,478           280,000

Van                    133,859           400,000

Bitlis                  130,460           250,000

Diyarbekir         -                      150,000       

Elaziz                 107,059           270,000

Sivas                  243,515           280,000

TOTAL                743,371        1,630,000

 

Major Henry Trotter, who was an expert on population in the British Embassy realized immediately the discordant figures in the consecutive reports of the Patriarchate and wrote down a memorandum to his ambassador on February 15, 1882 on the matter.    

 

According to Major Henry Trotter’s report[12], dated February 15, 1882, the Armenian population in Bitlis, Hekkari, Erzurum, Van region totaled as 373,500 Armenian and 85,000 Nestorian.

 

Major Trotter’s deposition  in his report "During a meeting of the Armenian National Assembly, in the last autumn, Mr. Sdépan Papazian, the presumed author of the statistical figures presented to the Berlin Conference, took on violently to the patriarch to have communicated to the Embassies the statistical figures without having consulted first the National Assembly, what consequentially drew the attention of the opinion to the enormous differences between the figures of Berlin and those supplied more recently by the patriarchy and to provoke remarks on the doubtful character of these two series of figures (...) In the list of Berlin, by an apparently dishonest manipulation of the official figures, the purpose aimed at was to prove that, according to these figures, the Armenian population of Erzurum and Van (including Erzurum and Hakkari) amounted to 1,150,000 souls. I demonstrated afterward that the real number did not exceed doubtlessly 450,000. As for the figures supplied by the Patriarch in the embassy in 1880, they indicated a population of 373,500 Armenians, and 85,000 Nestorians." clearly proves that the population figures supplied by the Patriarch were purposely inflated from 373,500 of the year 1880 to 1,150,000 in the year 1882. An unbelievable and non logical birthrate and increase of 777,000 souls in population within 2 years time period only. 

 

Vahan Vardapet’s declaration of entire Armenian Population on 1886 living in the Ottoman Empire.

 

In an Armenian news paper published in Istanbul and titled Ceride-i Şarkiye (Djeridei Sharkieh[13]) dated  December 3-15, 1886 an Armenian clerical writer Vahan Vardapet gave the figure of 1,263,000 as the total population of the Armenians living with in the territories of Ottoman Empire. His figures included Catholic, Orthodox and Gregorian Armenians.

 

Marcel Leart’s findings on Armenian Population on year 1912

 

Marcel Leart’s findings on Armenian Population in the provinces of Erzurum, Van, Bitlis, Harput, Diyarbekir and Sivas for the year 1912 totals as 2,615,000 where Moslems were 666,000 and Armenians 1,018,000. The numbers were based on Patriarchate’s again for the year 1882.

 

 

Details of Leart's findings.

                              

                   Total of population                                   

Province     Including minorities             Turks           Armenians

Erzurum               630,000                       240,000        215,000

Van                      350,000                         47,000        185,000

Bitlis                    382,000                         40,000        180,000

Harput                 450,000                       102,000        168,000

Diyarbekir           296,000                         45,000        105,000

Sivas                    507,000                       192,000        165,000

TOTAL              2,615,000                       666,000       1,018,000                 

 

 

Richard Hovannisian’s findings on Armenian Population before 1914

 

Richard Hovannisian[14] in his book titled "Armenia On The Road To Independence", alleges that before 1914 the Armenian population in Turkey was between 1,500,000 and  2,000,000.

Hrant Pasdermadjian’s findings on Armenian Population on year 1914

 

Hrant Pasdermadjian[15] in his book titled "Histoire de l'Armenie" alleges that, in the year 1914, 2,100,000 Armenians were living in Ottoman Empire,  1,700,000 in Russia and total of 4,100,000 Armenians in the world.

 

 

 

Arshak Chobanian’s findings on Armenian Population on year 1914

 

Arshak Chobanian[16], as the member of the Armenian National Delegation led by Boghos Nubar Pasha, prepared a report on the Armenian population in the territories of Ottoman Empire and on the world stating 2,380,000 Armenians living in the Ottoman empire and 4,160,000 on the world.  

 

Jacques de Morgan’s findings on Armenian Population on year 1914

 

Jacques de Morgan[17], in his book titled "Histoire du Peuple Armenian" alleges that in the year 1914, 2,380,000 Armenians were living  in the Ottoman Empire and total of 4,160,000 io the world. (It is strongly believed that he obtained the population  figures from Arshak Chobanian's report)

 

Letter sent by the U.S. Consul in Aleppo, J.B. Jackson sent on Feb.8th, 1916 to U.S. Ambassador Morgenthau.

 

U.S. Archive Doc. 59.867.48/21 is a Report – Letter sent by the U.S. Consul in Aleppo, J.B. Jackson sent on Feb.8th, 1916 to U.S. Ambassador Morgenthau, and gives a list of various camps in Syria region totaling to 486.000 and without referring to any killings[18].

 

Memorandum given by the Armenian Delegation to Paris Peace Conference on Feb. 12, 1919 signed by A. Aharonian and Boghos Nubar.

 

Refer to this memorandum given by the Armenian Delegation to Paris Peace Conference on Feb. 12, 1919 signed by A. Aharonian and Boghos Nubar. This memorandum says that 1.400.000 Armenians is alive at that time. The same is almost confirmed by Greek PM Venizelos at the same Conference[19].

   

Near East Relief Report on Armenians alive in Syria in the year 1921. 

 

The report states that[20] after F. Bouillon’s Treaty with Kemalist Turks 300.000 Armenians returned to Cilicia after British-French occupation, but that they evacuated the region in 1921. The report clearly declares that around 200.000 to 300.000 Armenians were alive in Syria region seeking for relief.

 

Near East Relief Report on Armenians alive in Armenia in the year 1921. 

 

The report states that the number of resident Armenians in (Caucasus) Armenia is 1,000,000 in the year 1921 and half of these people around, 500,000 applied to Relief Organization for relief[21].

 

 

Near East Relief Report[22] does not mention the word or an incident of massacre or genocide or any other word with similar meaning or context  in any paragraph.

 

The report does not speak of or mention in any line or paragraph the word “massacre or genocide" or any other word with similar meaning or context.

 

The report US Senate Resolution No. 266, April 22

 

The report US Senate Resolution No. 266, April 22, 1922 resolves that on 31.12.1921 there was 1.414.000 Armenians living in Turkey-Syria-and Russia. There is no indication of any massacre at all[23].

 

U.S. Document Authority Letter 1-8-58, signed by State Department W.R. Anderson in the year 1922.

 

U.S. Document[24] “Authority Letter 1-8-58, signed by State Department W.R. Anderson” gives the number of all Armenians on the whole world in the year 1922. This document states that the total population is 3,004,000 of which 817,873 are refugees from Turkey and that 281,000 Armenians live in Turkey.

 

The Memorandum submitted to the Lausanne Peace Conference on 1923

 

The Memorandum given to the 1923 to the Lausanne Peace Conference on 2.2.1923 states that 760,000 Armenians are alive[25].

 

Ethnic Cleansing by Dashnagtzoutun Party during the years 1918-1920

 

Soviet historian Mr. A. A. Lalaian, who was originally an Armenian and a journalist as well, published his findings in Russian language on the “Tashnak” period of Caucaus Armenia,  in the Russian magazine“Revolyutsionniy Vostok” (Revolutionist East) No. 2-3 of 1936 under the title  “Anti-Revolutionist Tashnaksyutin and Imperialist War 1914-1918”. The magazine was edited and printed by Russian National and Colonial Studies Organization.  

 

The Republic of Armenia (Hayastani Hanrapetutyun, May 1918 to December 1920) was founded in month May of 1918 and the first Prime minister Mr. Hovhannes Katchaznouni ruled the country from May 1918 to 1919.

According to Lalain[26], in the year 1918 within the boundaries of Caucasus Armenia, total of 1,200,000 people of mainly 5 different nations were living[27].

 

During the dictatorship of Dashnags, under the reign of Prime minister Katchaznouni from 1918 till 1920 the population decreased by a total of 430,000 man, woman and children of the 5 different nations. The Armenians decreased by 35%, the Turks by 77%, the Kurds by 98% and the Yezidis by 40% total amounting to 430,000.

 

The below table shows the decrease by year and by per nation. 

 

Nations                   1918               1920              % Loss

Armenians           885,000           690,500           22 %

Turks                    260,000             60,000           77 %

Kurds                     25,000                  500          98 %          

Yezids                       8,000              5,000           40 %          

Russians                 15,000            14,000            7 %          

Other nations          7,000               4,000          43 %

Total                 1,200,000           774,000          35.5 %

 

 

Conclusion part of  Mr. Şükrü Server Aya's review of the report "Near East Relief Report dated 31 December 1929" of the US Senate. 

 

"Conclusion[28]: According to this report, the Armenian deaths are unbelievably low if we are to add 1 million alive in 1921 (say 800.000 in Armenia after loss of 200.000 by starvation plus 200.000 or 300.000 in Syria district) we have a figure of 1.1 million alive and by adding those who went to other countries, Greek Islands etc. we arrive to about 1.3 million alive in 1921. If we are to depend on this report which is an official U.S. document, the deaths due to several reasons are much to less and only around 300.000 (or 20% versus 40% estimated by McCarthy for Turks and Armenians in the area)". 

 

Comparative estimates of Armenian population existed with in the territories of Ottoman Empire during years 1880 and 1920.

 

Year       Source                                                  Estimated Population

1878      Patriarchate (Subm. to Berlin Conf.)   1,150,000

1880      Patriarch N. Varjabedian                        563,677 and 805,743[29]  

1881      Patriarch N. Varjabedian                        743,371[30]

1882      Patriarch N. Varjabedian                     1,630,371[31]

1882      Marcel Leart (Kirkor Zöhrap)              1,660,000[32]

1886      Vahan Vardapet[33]                                 1,263,000[34]

1892      Vital Cuninet[35]                                      1,475,011[36]

1895      Francis de Presence                             1,260,000[37]

1896      Felix Weber                                          1,000,000[38]

1900      Tournbize[39]                                           1,300,000

1901      H. F. B. Lynch[40]                                      1,325,000[41]           

1901      Ludovic de Constenson[42]                      1,383,779[43]

1905      Ottoman State Census                         1,294,851

1910      Encycloapedia Britannica (Year 1910) 1,500,000[44]

1912      Marcel Leart (Kirkor Zöhrap)              1,018,000

1912      British Blue Book                                  1,056,000

1913      Armenian Patriarchate                        1,915,651

1913      Ludovic de Constenson                         1,056,000-1,400,000[45]

1914      Richard Hovannisian                            1,500,000-2,000,000[46]     

1914      Daniel Panzac[47]                                    1,5000,000-1,600,000[48]

1914      Justin McCarthy[49]                                 1,698,303

1914      Ottoman Empire Census[50]                   1,229,007[51]

1914      Patriarch Ormanian                             1,579,000[52]

1914      J. Lepsius                                              1,600,000

1914      Christopher V. Walker                          1,500,000-2,000,000[53]

1914      Stanford J. Shaw[54]                                1,294,851

1914      David Magie[55]                                      1,479,000[56]

1914      Clair Price                                            1,500,000[57]

1914      Vital Cuinet                                          1,475,000[58] (Asian territories)

1914      Hrant Pastirmadjian                             2,100,000[59]

1914      Alexander E. Powell                             1,500,000[60]

1914      Arshak Chobanian                                2,380,000[61]

1914      Jacques de Morgan                              2,380,000[62]

1914      Grabill (All over Ott. Empire)              1,800,000-2,000,000[63]

1910      Encycloapedia Britannica (year 1914) 1,500,000

1915      National Geographic                            2,000,000 (Ottoman, Russia, Persia)

1915      New York Times (Oct 22, 1915)           1,200,000

1917      Russian Official Statistics                     1,700,000[64]

1918      Encycloapedia Britannica (Year 1918) 2,000,000

1918      A. A. Lalaian                                            885,000 (Only in Armenia)

1919      A. Aharonian and Bohos Nubar            1,400,000[65]

1919      Akaby Nessibian                                   1,080,000[66]

1920      Ohannes Katchaznuni[67]                        1,000,000   (after emigration)

1920      Kevork Aslan                                         1,800,000[68]

1921      Near East Relief Report                       1,000,000[69]

 

Conclusion

 

According to the above 45 reports, findings and estimates of researches, historians, diplomats, institutions and clergy, the minimum Armenian population seems was 743,000 and the maximum 2,380,000.

 

Based on the mean value of the above findings;

Between years 1878 and 1914, around 1,475,565 and years 1878 and 1921, around 1,398,020 Armenians were living in the area.

 

When the population of Armenians estimated by Christian researches or clergies are compared with the Ottoman Empire's Statistical Department's records for the period between 1892 to 1914, it seems they are remarkably close to each other.

 

A mathematical study shows that for the period between 1878 to 1914, the minimum average Armenian population lived within the Empires boundaries was around 1,596,417 and the maximum was 1,667,228.  

 

The alleged death of 1,500,000 Armenians during relocation in the year 1915 do not match with the population figures lived in the area pre 1915 and post 1916.  

 

Physically it is almost impossible to kill 1,500,000 lives within 5 months in the year 1915 conditions in Eastern Anatolia, where four fifth of the alleged victims were adults. Lack of ammunition and shortage of military troops do not make the accusation sensible or logical, when taking into consideration a total of 10,000 persons were executed every day. 

 

Using a pickaxe and a shovel, to dig a mass grave big enough to hold 10,000 bodies of a volume 2,160 cubic meters, would need 5000 hrs of work and 5,000 workers per day, subject no rain and good food and rest place for a nonstop 150 days, with no week end resting.

     

Even after 30 years with a better and an advanced technology and machinery the Germany's Nazi leader Adolf Hitler, in his death camps couldn't executed and disposed 10,000 bodies per day.  

 

Even if such an execution were carried on for 150 days on run, where were these bodies disposed or buried. Till today not even a single mass graveyard was discovered or detected.

 

It is obvious from the above figures that the Armenian allegations of 1,500,000 loss of lives during relocation in the year 1915 is just a hoax.   



[1] Morgan, Jacques de, “The History of the Armenian People”, Hairenik Association and Press, Boston, 1918, p.368-9.

[2] Gürün, Kamuran. “Ermeni Dosyası”, Remzi Kitapevi, İstanbul, 2008, p.41

[3] F.O. 424106, No.273, Enclosure I.

[4] F.O.: Foreign Office

[5] F.O. 424/106/200: As is coded in The National Archives

[6] F.O. 424/107, No. 135, Enclosure I.

[7] F.O. 424/132/46

[8] Leart, Marcel. “La Question Armenienne a la Lumiere des Documents”, Paris, 1913, pp. 59-60

[9] Marcel Leart: actual name Kirkor Zöhrap, served as a Member of Parliament  on 1908 and 1914 Assemblies, used the name Marcel Leart in his research papers. (Gale Encyclopedia of the Mideast & N. Africa: Krikor Zohrab)

[10]    Leart, Marcel. “La Question Armenienne a la Lumiere des Documents”, Paris, 1913, pp. 59-60

[11] Ibid, pp.58-59

[12] Report of the Major Henry Trotter, dated February 15th, 1882 (Reference : Foreign Office 424/132, n°46, annexe 5)

[13] Djeridei Sharkieh meaning Eastern Newspaper, published in Istanbul during the years 1885-1913, in Armenian language.

[14]    Hovanissian, Richard. Armenia On The Road To Independence, Los Angeles, 1963, p.9

[15]    Pastermadjian, Hrant. Histoire de l'Armenie, Paris, 1949, 2.nd Ed. Douredjián, 1987, p.374

[16]    Arshak Chobanian (Tchobanian)(1872-1954), A well known Armenian poet, translator and Member of National Delegation led by Boghos Nubar Pasha, Secretary of the Armenian Committee in Paris, to Jean Gout, Assistant Director of Asia, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of France.

[17]    Morgan, Jacques Jean Marie de.  Histoire du Peuple Armenian, Berger-Levrault, Paris, 1919, p.297

[18]    US Senate, 67th Congress 2nd Edition, Document No. 192, Near East Relief, Report of the Near East Relief for the year ending December 31, 1921, Washington, Government printing Office, 1922

[19]   http://armenians-1915.blogspot.com/2008/07/2719-armenian-authorities-on-issue-of.html

      Armenian Genocide Resource Center. The Largest Resource Center On Armenian Genocide, Covering 3000+ Articles, 160+ Free E-Books, 300+ Research Papers, Historical Newspaper Screen Shots Dates Back to 1800's, 90+ Videos, Eyewitness Accounts, Regular Updates.

[20]    Ibid p. 4

[21]    Ibid p.5

[22]    Ibid from page 1 to 29

[23]    http://armenians-1915.blogspot.com/2008/02/2335-free-e-book-near-east-relief.html

      Armenian Genocide Resource Center. The Largest Resource Center On Armenian Genocide, Covering 3000+ Articles, 160+ Free E-Books, 300+ Research Papers, Historical Newspaper Screen Shots Dates Back to 1800's, 90+ Videos, Eyewitness Accounts, Regular Updates.

[24]    http://armenians-1915.blogspot.com/2008/02/2335-free-e-book-near-east-relief.html

[25]    http://armenians-1915.blogspot.com/2008/02/2335-free-e-book-near-east-relief.html

[26]    A. A. Lalaian, Counter Revolutionary Role of the Dashnagzoutiun Party 1914-1923.  Kaynak Yayınevi, ISBN: 9789753434836, 103 pages

[27]    http://www.tallarmeniantale.com/lalayan.htm

[28]    Şükrü Server Aya. Review of Near East Relief Report 31 Dec 1921, US Senate, 67th Congress 2nd Edition, Document No. 192, Washington, Government printing Office, 1922

      http://armenians-1915.blogspot.com/2008/02/2335-free-e-book-near-east-relief.html

[29]    F.O. 424106, No.273, Enclosure I.

[30]    F.O. 424/132/46

[31]    Leart, Marcel, p.59-60

[32]    Leart, Marcel, p.59-60

[33]    Armenian Clericai writer

[34]    Djeridei Sharkieh Newspaper, Istanbul, 1886

[35]    Vital Cuninet, La Turquie d'Asie, Paris, 1992

[36]    H. Özdemir, K. Çiçek, Ö. Turan, R. Çalık, Y. Halaçoğlu, Ermeniler: Sürgün ve Göç, TTK Yayınları, Ankara, 2005. p.49-50 

[37]    Annex 2-AJR-2, Assembly Joint Resolution No. 2, Introduced by Assembly Members Gatto and Achadjian, December 3, 2012, California Legislature 2013-14 Regular Session  

[38]    Yusuf Halaçoğlu, Ermenilerin Suriye'ye Nakli: Sürgün mü, Soykırım mı, Belgeler, Türk Tarih Kurumu,  Ankara, s.25

[39]   Şükrü Server Aya, 2062) Letter To Wes Allison Ref: Deaths in WWI Era Dated 11th Oct, 2007.

http://armenians-1915.blogspot.com/2007/10/2062-letter-to-wes-allison-ref-deaths.html

[40]    H. F. B. Lynch, Armenia, Travels and Studies, Beirut, 1965

[41]    H. Özdemir, K. Çiçek, Ö. Turan, R. Çalık, Y. Halaçoğlu, p.49-50

[42]    Ludovic de Constenson, Les Reformes en Turquie d'Asie, Paris, 1913

[43]    Halil Gülşen, Tehcir Öncesi Osmanlı Ermeni Nüfusu Üzerine Değerlendirme, Ermeni Araştırmaları, Sayı 36, 2010, ISSN: 1303-068X, AVİM, Terazi Yayınları, Ankara, p.247

[44]    H. Özdemir, K. Çiçek, Ö. Turan, R. Çalık, Y. Halaçoğlu, p.49-50

[45]    H. Özdemir, K. Çiçek, Ö. Turan, R. Çalık, Y. Halaçoğlu, p.49-50

[46]    Hovanissian, Richard. Armenia On The Road To Independence,  p.9

[47]    Halil Gülşen, p.25

[48]    H. Özdemir, K. Çiçek, Ö. Turan, R. Çalık, Y. Halaçoğlu, p.49-50

[49]    Justin McCarthy, Death and Exile, New Jersey, 1995, The Darwin Press

[50]    1914 Census records by Statistics Bureau of Ottoman Empire

[51]    H. Özdemir, K. Çiçek, Ö. Turan, R. Çalık, Y. Halaçoğlu, p.49-50

[52]    Şükrü Server Aya, The Genocide of Truth, Istanbul Trade University, Istanbul, 2008,

      ISBN 978-975-6516249

[53]    Christopher V. Walker, Armenia, the Survival of a Nation, London, 1980

[54]    Stanford J. Shaw, G. K., History of the ottoman Empire and modern Turkey, Cambridge University Press, 1977

[55]    Halil Gülşen, p.25

[56]    H. Özdemir, K. Çiçek, Ö. Turan, R. Çalık, Y. Halaçoğlu, p.49-50

[57]    Clair Price, The Rebirth of Turkey, New York, 1923

[58]    Cuinet Vital, La Turquie d'Asie, Paris, 1892

[59]    Pastermadjian, Hrant, p.374

[60]    Alexander E. Powell, The Struggle for Power in Muslim Asia, New York, 1923

[61]    Arshak Chobanian (Tchobanian)(1872-1954),

[62]    Morgan, Jacques Jean Marie de.  Histoire du Peuple Armenian, Berger-Levrault, Paris, 1919, p.297

[63]    Grabill, p.51

[64]    Şükrü Server Aya, The Genocide of Truth Continues, Derin Press, Istanbul, 2010 , 

      ISBN 978-6055-500078, p.103

[65]    http://armenians-1915.blogspot.com/2008/07/2719-armenian-authorities-on-issue-of.html

      Armenian Genocide Resource Center.   

[66]    Akaby Nassibian, Britain and the Armenian Question, p.253

[67]    Ohannes Katchaznuni, Dashnagtzoution Has Nothing T Do Anymore, Istanbul, 2006, Kaynak Press

[68]    Annex 2-AJR-2, p.2

[69]    US Senate, 67th Congress 2nd Edition, Near East Relief Report 1921